Saturday, April 29, 2023




This HSE Document "PIT EXCAVATION RISK ASSESSMENT" highlights the work activities such as Pit Excavation up to 3.0 m, Pit Excavation beyond 3.0 m, Rock by excavation blasting, Piling Work, and Narrow deep excavations for pipelines, etc.

Here are some key points for conducting a risk assessment for pit excavations:

  1. Identify Hazards: Identify all potential hazards that are associated with pit excavations. This may include physical hazards such as cave-ins, falls, falling objects, and hazardous atmospheres such as carbon monoxide.

  2. Evaluate Risks: Evaluate the likelihood and severity of each identified hazard. Determine the potential impact on personnel, equipment, and the environment.

  3. Develop Control Measures: Develop control measures that will reduce the likelihood or severity of each identified hazard. For example, installing shoring systems to prevent cave-ins, ensuring proper ventilation to prevent hazardous atmospheres, and providing proper personal protective equipment (PPE) to workers.

  4. Implement Controls: Implement the control measures identified in step 3. Ensure that all workers are trained on the proper use of any equipment or PPE required to mitigate risks.

  5. Monitor and Review: Regularly monitor the effectiveness of the implemented controls and review the risk assessment to ensure that all hazards have been addressed. Make adjustments to control measures as needed.

  6. Emergency Response Plan: Develop an emergency response plan in the event of an accident or incident. Ensure that all workers are trained on the emergency response plan and that the plan is regularly reviewed and updated.

  7. Communication and Consultation: Communicate the results of the risk assessment and control measures to all workers and consult with workers on any concerns or suggestions they may have.


  1. Pit Excavation up to 3.0m
  2. Pit Excavation beyond 3.0m
  3. Narrow deep excavations for pipelines, etc.
  4. Rock-by excavation blasting
  5. Piling Work


  1. Falling into a pit
  2. Earth Collapse
  3. Contact with buried electric cables Gas/ Oil Pipelines
  4. Same as above Plus Flooding due to excessive rain/ underground water
  5. Digging in the vicinity of the existing Building/Structure
  6. Movement of vehicles/equipment close to the edge of the cut.
  7. Same as above Plus Frequent cave-in or slides
  8. Flooding due to Hydrostatic testing
  9. Improper handling of explosives
  10. Uncontrolled explosion
  11. Scattering of stone pieces in the atmosphere
  12. Entrapping of persons/animals.
  13. Misfire
  14. Failure of pile driving equipment
  15. Noise pollution
  16. Extruding rods/casing
  17. Working in the vicinity of 'Live- Electricity'


  1. Personal injury
  2. Suffocation/Breathlessness Buried
  3. Electrocution Explosion
  4. Can cause a drowning situation
  5. Building/Structure may collapse Loss of health & wealth
  6. May cause cave-in or slides.
  7. Persons may get buried.
  8. May cause severe injuries or prove fatal
  9. May arise drowning situation
  10. May prove fatal
  11. May cause severe injuries or prove fatal
  12. Can hurt people
  13. May explode suddenly
  14. Can hurt people
  15. Can cause deafness and psychological imbalance.
  16. 1Can cause electrocution/ Asphyxiation


  1. Provide guard rails/barricades with warning signals.
  2. Provide at least two entries/ exits.
  3. Provide escape ladders.
  4. Provide the suitable size of shoring and strutting, if required.
  5. Keep soil heaps away from the edge equivalent to
  6. 1.5m or depth of pit whichever is more.
  7. Don't allow vehicles to operate too close to excavated areas. Maintain at least 2m distance from the edge of the cut.
  8. Maintain a sufficient angle of repose. Provide a slope not less than 1:1 and a suitable bench of 0.5m width at every 1.5m depth of excavation in all soils except hard rock.
  9. Battering/benching the sides.
  10. Obtain permission from competent authorities, prior to excavation, if required.
  11. Locate the position of buried utilities by referring to plant drawings.
  12. Start digging manually to locate the exact position of buried utilities and thereafter use mechanical means.
  13. Prevent ingress of water. Provide ring buoys.
  14. Identify and provide a suitable size dewatering pump or well-point system.
  15. Obtain prior approval of the excavation method from local authorities. Use the under-pining method.
  16. Construct a retaining wall side by side.
  17. Barricade the excavated area with proper lighting arrangements.
  18. Maintain at least a 2m distance from the edge of the cut and use stop blocks to prevent over-run.
  19. Strengthen shoring and strutting.
  20. Battering/ benching of sides.
  21. Provide escape ladders.
  22. Same as above plus Bail out accumulated water.
  23. Maintain adequate ventilation.
  24. Ensure proper storage, handling & carrying of explosives by trained personnel.
  25. Comply with the applicable explosive acts & rules.
  26. Allow only authorized persons to perform blasting operations.
  27. Smoking and open flames are to be strictly prohibited.
  28. Use PPE like goggles, face masks, helmets, etc.
  29. Inspect Piling rigs and pulley blocks before the beginning of each shift.
  30. Use personal protective equipment like earplugs, muffs, etc.
  31. Barricade the area and install sign boards. Provide first-aid.
  32. Keep sufficient distance from Live-Electricity as per IS code.
  33. Shut off the supply, if possible.
  34. Provide artificial/rescue breathing to the injured.



No comments: