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Friday, October 30, 2020

October 30, 2020

Fume Hood Safety-Toolbox Talks (Laboratory Technician Safety Guidelines)

1. Scope of Discussion

The fume hood is often the basic controlling device for safeguarding laboratory technicians while working with flammable and/or highly toxic chemicals or substances. Occupational Health and Safety Assessment Series (OSHA) Laboratory standard (29 CFR 1910.1450) demands that fume hoods be maintained and function appropriately when utilized. A well-designed fume hood in a ventilated room will protect a trained laboratory technician from most airborne exposures to hazardous substances.

The following work practices are always suggested when using highly toxic chemical fume hoods, and more rigorous work practices may be mandatory for some circumstances.

2. Before using a Fume Hood:

  1. Make sure that you understand how the hood works.
  2. You should be trained to use it properly
  3. Ensure that the hood is on.
  4. Know the hazards of the chemical (s) you are working with; referring to the Safety Data Sheet if you are unfamiliar.
  5. Always make sure that the sash is open to the appropriate operating level, usually indicated by the arrows on the frame of the fume hood.
  6. Make sure that the air gauge indicates that the airflow is within the required range. 

3. When Using a Fume Hood

Never allow your head to enter the plane of the hood opening. E.g., vertical rising sashes, intact the sash below your face, horizontal sliding sashes, intact the sash positioned in front of you and work around the side of the sash.

  1. Use appropriate eye protection at all times.
  2. Keep the hood slots and baffles free of blockages by devices, equipment or containers.
  3. Elevate large equipment at least 2 inches off the base of the hood interior.
  4. Conduct all work and keep all apparatus and chemicals at least 6 inches back from the face of the hood.  A stripe on the bench surface is the better option for reminder.
  5. Do not permanently store any chemicals or apparatus in the hood.
  6. Minimize foot traffic near the face of the hood.
  7. Do not make fast movements when taking things in and out of the hood.
  8. Do not place electrical boxes/holders or other spark sources inside the hood when flammable liquids or gases are present. No permanent electrical holder is allowed in the hood.

4. Hood Safety

  1. Do not use the hood as a waste disposal mechanism. Solvent/chemical mixture bottles in the fume hood must be properly capped when not in use.
  2. Immediately report any hood that is not functioning appropriately to your supervisor.  The sash should be closed and the hood “tagged” and taken out of service until maintenance can be accomplished.
  3. When using extremely hazardous chemicals, understand your laboratory’s action plan in case an emergency, such as a power failure occurs.

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Fume Hood Safety-Toolbox Talks

Thursday, October 29, 2020

October 29, 2020

How to Make Calculation for Accident Frequency Rate?

Frequency Rate Calculation:

The frequency rate used to compare accident & injury statistics either with is a company or with an industry:

FR:                               No of disabling injuries x 200 000

                               -------------------------------------------------------

                                 Total man hours worked (hours of exposure)

For example, a company operating 6 sites or contracts which has 5 disabling injuries in a total of 1250000-man hours during a period would have frequency rate of:

5 x 200000 =  or   No. of accident x 10’6

1250000                    

Total man hours worked = Answer   0.8

Regular use of this formula will show whether or not a company own accident situation is getting better or worse.

Reportable Accident (RA): Lost Time Accident which is reported to the inspectorate of factories (factory inspector). If victim does not report duty within 48 hours.

Restricted Work Case (RWC): An injury which results in a person being unable to perform one or more of the routine functions of their job.

First Aid Case (FAC): Any one-time treatment and subsequent observation of minor scratches, cuts, burns, needling etc. which do not ordinarily need medical treatment.

Fatal accident reports should be submitting within 8 hours.

Dangerous Occurrence (DO): A particular event that has to be reported to the relevant authority by statute law.

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How to Make Calculation for Accident Frequency Rate? 

Wednesday, October 28, 2020

October 28, 2020

Demolition Safety-Preparatory Operations

Toolbox Talks-Overview

Starting any demolition job, we should take several steps to safeguard the health and safety of our employees. Taking down construction projects can be far more fatal than putting them up. OSHA demands that before we start the operation, our competent person must accomplish an engineering survey of the structure.  

Scope of Discussion

An engineering survey provides our supervisors with the opportunity to evaluate the job in its accomplishment. The precautionary operations include the overall planning of the job, including the methods for bringing down the structure, the equipment or device needed, and the measures to be taken to perform the work safely, including the protection of the employees and public.

The safety of all employees on the worksite should be the basic consideration. Potential hazards such as fires, cave-ins, and physical injuries are the primary targets for engineering surveys.

OSHA for sees the below questions to be answered before the actual demolition Starts:

  1. Has extreme fire, heavy flooding, explosion or other cause deteriorated the structure?  If so, are deadly/critically walls or floors reinforced?
  2. Have any hazardous chemical, gases, explosives, flammable material, or similar dangerous substances been utilized or stored on the worksite?  If so, have samples been taken and analyzed before demolition?
  3. Is the proper safety equipment available?
  4. Are all utilities including electricity, gas, water, steam, sewer, and other service lines shut off, capped or otherwise controlled?  Do we know the exact location of utilities that must be kept on during demolition?  Do we know where overhead lines are situated?
  5. Are we familiar with and has our company planned for all provisions of OSHA’s requirements for medical services and first aid?
  6. Does our company have an Emergency Action Plan for fires, and do we know our assignment?  Do we know the evacuation plan and emergency route?
  7. Are all debris drop points guarded by barricades and warning signs?

Demolition worksites are critical, so give yourself and your co-workers all the support and know-how possible to accomplish the project without critical incident or accidents occurrences. Get workers/employees involved in the basic operations, and review all near misses and close calls immediately.

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Monday, October 26, 2020

October 26, 2020

Electrical Safety Guidelines

Electrical  Safety and Preventive Measures

  • 30 ma used for portable tools (1 Ampere = 1000 MA)
  • 1 ohm required for Diesel Generator or portable diesel engines
  • 25 mili ohms is enough to kill a person
  • Min 3 mtrs clearance from electric to the person when passing. HV
  • Low voltage. <250 V 
  • Medium voltage. 250 V – 650 V 
  • High voltage. 650 V – 33 KV 
  • Extra high voltage. Above 33 KV 

Precaution:

  1. PTW 
  2. Isolation 
  3. LOTO 
  4. Insulation 
  5. RCD (Residual current device) circuit breaker 
  6. Bonding & Grounding 
  7. Guarding 
  8. Electric resistant PPE’s 
  9. Safe work practice 
  10. ELCB (Earth leakage circuit breaker) 
  11. GFCI (Ground fault circuit interrupter) 
  12. OCB (oil circuit breaker) 
  13. VCB (Vacuum circuit breaker) 
  14. Use flameproof apron while putting ON/OFF 

Points to Remember:

  1. The equipment itself should be checked to ensure that it is suitable and conforms with recognized standards such as CE marking and European standards, 
  2. Vertical clearance above walkways shall not be less than 3 mtrs (10ft) for circuits carrying 600 volts or less.
  3. Current: the flow of electricity through a conductor 
  4. Voltage: the potential difference between two points of a conductor 
  5. HIPOT TEST: It is the insulation leakage test done for high voltage electrical

Standard Electric Boards Colour Code:

  • Purple. 24 v dc
  • Yellow. 110 v ac
  • Blue. 220 v ac
  • Red. 440 v ac

Effects of Amount of A/C Current 60 Cycles/Seconds: 

  • More than 3 ma. Painful shock, incident, accident
  • More than 10 ma. muscle contraction can’t go
  • 25 mA can kill a person
  • More than 30 ma. Temporary lung paralysis 
  • More than 50 ma. Heart dysfunction, usually fatal
  • More than 100 ma – 4 a. Heart dysfunction, fatal 
  • Over 4 a. heart paralysis, severe. burn
  • 50 – 100 a. for a person will be fatal.  
  • For earth rod (D.G. or welding gen) required 1 ohm 
  • ARC: Electrical passing through the air
  • Minimum acceptable value of insulation resistance, 1 megohm for each 1000 V 
  • e.g. one motor 2400 V so you should have a minimum insulence resistance megohms
  • Clearance a person from live 50 kv lines shall be 10 feet 0.4 inches

Difference Between Grounding & Bonding?

Earthing is the attachment of a bonded metallic system to earth, typically through ground rods or other suitable grounding electrodes. The NEC prohibits earthing via isolated ground rods. As the only means of equipment grounding.

  1. Transformer requires min 4 earthing. 
  2. Grounding deep 10.  
  3. Ground rods shall not be less than 5/8 inch in diameter by 8 feet in length. 
  4. Ground rods shall be driven into the ground so that one end of the ground rod is at a minimum depth of 8 feet below the surface of the ground.
  5. Distance (away) from other grounding is 50. 
  6. Rod: copper or galvanized
  7. Transformer requires min 4 earthing standard ground resistance value of 5.0 ohms or less
  8. Bonding: grounding one equipment’s to another to avoid static electricity
  9. The telecommunications industry has often used 5 ohms or less as their value for grounding and bonding while electric utilities construct their ground systems so that the resistance at a large station will be no more than a few tenths of one ohm.
  10. Platform wide enough with guard rails (39 – 43”) and toe boards (4’’ - 6”)

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 Electrical Safety Guidelines

Thursday, October 22, 2020

October 22, 2020

Confined Space-Entry Safety Guidelines

Confined Space Entry Requirements & Safety Measures 

  1. Written program
  2. Hazard identification procedures
  3. Hazard abatement and control
  4. TRA completed
  5. Permits\Certificates 
  6. Employee training
  7. Proper equipment
  8. Adequate rescue plan
  9. Written Work Procedure

Equipment Required 

  1. Testing and monitoring
  2. Ventilating
  3. Communications
  4. Lighting, barriers, and shields
  5. Safe ingress and egress
  6. Rescue and emergency
  7. PPE
  8. Specific equipment needed
  9. Fire Protection
  10. Illumination\Electrical equipment

In what Conditions a confined space permit to work (PTW) can be issued?

  • If properly ventilated, 
  • Gas test readings are satisfactory, 
  • Properly barricaded and warning signs are posted, 
  • Competent and trained standby personal is present with log sheet, 
  • Sufficient lighting and low voltage electricity (24V110V), 
  • Proper means of communication, 
  • Locked and tagged out if necessary, 
  • Lifeline and man retrieval system if mandatory, etc. 

Knowledge Point: 

  1. only 45 c’ max temperature allowed inside CSE
  2. Human body temp always 37c’
  3. Claustrophobia: - mean a man getting fear to entering inside confined space 
  4. Acrophobia: - when a man getting fear to go on height 
  5. Hydrophobia: - main fearing to enter in water. 
  6. Suspensions trauma: - after fall of personal from height he gets unconscious that's called suspension trauma
  7. Standard size of Manhole: one entrance hole in dimensions of 600 x 600 mm or 600mm diameter

During Entry:

  • Maintain ventilation, maintain communication, maintain atmospheric check
  • Any required electrical lighting or tools shall be powered by a low voltage system of not more than 24 volts
  • Lighting should be provided if necessary, a maximum of 24 volts lighting should be used attached with GFCI 
  • Only intrinsically safe or explosion proof equipment/device/tools shall be used inside
  •  Required gas test such as H2S less than 10 PPM, O2 19.5 – 22.5 %, CO2 35-50 PPM, LEL less than 5%
  • All persons should be certified TPC
  • If O2 less than 19.5 % breathing difficulty
  • If O2 more than 23.5 % can burn the hair
  • If welding welder is to be protected with an insulated mat or cradle to avoid body, contact
  • Always cover any cut or stretches with a water proof plaster
  • Cylinders not allowed to bring inside confined space

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Tuesday, October 20, 2020

October 20, 2020

Method Statement For Compressed Gas Cylinder

1. Overview

There are numerous jobs in construction where oxygen and acetylene cylinders are on hand for cutting and welding.  The problem is that much of the time these cylinders are improperly stored and handled.  If you use these cylinders often it’s easy to be careless with them. They can be dangerous for several different reasons.  

Lots of the accidents involving cylinders aren’t too serious; a worker might catch a hose with his foot and the unsecured cylinder falls over on his ankle, or a compressed gas cylinder slips out of a choker and hits someone on any part of the body.  However, every once in a while, a bad accident happens.  A valve is knocked off an oxygen cylinder and it takes off like a torpedo, or a misused cylinder explodes and somebody is killed.

2. Scope

Here’s what we can do (or not do) to help prevent these accidents:

  • DO keep cylinders upright and secured at all times.
  • DO utilize a cradle and or cage while hoisting compressed gas cylinder with a crane.
  • DO be sure the valve protection caps are on before moving compressed gas cylinder and while the cylinders are in storage. 
  • DO store oxygen cylinders apart from any fuel/fuel gas cylinders, such as acetylene, by at least 20 feet.
  • DO close the valve on empty compressed gas cylinder, put on the cap, and mark them “MT, etc.”
  • DON’T store propane cylinders inside any building.  
  • DON’T use cylinders for rollers or supports.
  • DON’T tamper with the valves or safety devices.
  • Cylinders are dangerous because of the gas they have inside, and because they hold that gas under extreme pressure (the pressure part is how they can turn into a torpedo!).  If they are for welding, they probably have one of two different kinds—either acetylene or oxygen gas.  
  • Acetylene is dangerous because it is very flammable and if enough gas were to build up because of a leak, there could be an explosion if a flame was around.  The same holds if the cylinder had propane or some other flammable gas used for heating purposes.
  • About the oxygen cylinders, their danger lies in fueling the fire in several different ways.  If pure oxygen meets oil or grease, a fire will start without a flame due to a chemical reaction.
  • So, follow the safety rules outlined above, and stay safe and alive!

Questions

  1. Are there instances on this job site when compressed gas in cylinders will be used?
  2. Why is proper storage for cylinders essential?
  3. Why not use cylinders for rollers or supports?
  4. What method is best to hoist a cylinder?

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October 20, 2020

What are Chemicals and Hazards Associated with These Substances

Hazards: 

  • DGFVML: dust, gas, fumes, vapour, mist, liquid
  • Irritation, Itching, Burning, Breading a person, Fire, Explosion, Inhalation, Radiation
  • Two important hazards: Health hazards, fire & explosion hazards
  • Chemical hazards: any chemical that presents a physical hazard or a health hazard

Hazards associated with chemicals: (classification of hazardous substance)

  1. Irritant: Non-corrosive which through immediate prolonged or repeated contact with skin or mucus membrane may cause inflammation e.g. petrol
  2. Corrosive: Substance which can contact with living tissues may destroy by burning e.g. Acid
  3. Harmful: Substance which swallowed, inhaled or penetrates the skin may cause damage
  4. Boiling point: The pump at which a liquid boil at atmosphere pressure (100 f’)
  5. Combustible materials: A combustible material, a substance that catches fire & burns easily above 400 c’
  6. Flammable: material that will burn with ignited at or below room temperature
  7. Cryogenic Columns: liquid, solid, gases, & naphtha

Some chemical knowledge:

  • Hydrocracking is a catalyst chemical process used in petroleum refineries for converting (in the catalyst used Alumina Balls)
  • Amine used for H2S tripping
  • CCR, continuous catalyst regeneration (or Reformer)
  • Naphtha is lighter than gasoline
  • CHMC. Chemical hazards management chart
  • Chemical PPEs:  chemical splash face shield  
  • Handling corrosive materials, the best gloves are Rubber, Neoprene, and vinyl.
  • MSDS not older than 3 years

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Sunday, October 18, 2020

October 18, 2020

What is Gas Testing?

In this article, we will discuss about the Gas Testing and main points to know:

  • The term gas testing explains the procedure for testing of toxic, oxygen deficiency / enrichment and flammable gases /vapors in the work area. 
  • Does gas test basically, upwind of the worksite and then around the minimum of 5-meter radius of the worksite. Entire potential sources of release must be tested along with the risk spot
  • Conducting through Gas Testing (GT) at above head height and at floor level to ensure that gases of different relative densities have the best possible chance of being detected

Portable Gas Monitors: 

Oxygen Deficient (OD) less than 10% atmospheres may not illustrate the true concentrations of combustible gas. 

POINTS TO KNOW:

  • ADCO is producing Methane
  • Up to 1.4 safe but when reach to 5% not safe 95% safety margin 
  • Butane use in cigarette lighters
  • Propane use for cooking and heating pipes before welding commence.
  • Kerosene use for jet fuels
  • Detector keep 5 meters before the job upwind.
  • 3 seconds per foot tube getting time in detect, target result e.g. 50 ft =2.5 minutes
  • No advantage uses the tube
  • Measure 5 meters’ radius of worksite check. MLH
  • Every 6 months’ calibration of gas detectors
  • Bump test= o2 and LEL
  • Turn off in 3 seconds 
  • Too small or too big gas quantity will not ignite, fuel, oxygen and an ignition source
  • Any amount of gas between Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) & Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) is two limits is explosive 
  • Below Lower Explosive Limit (LEL) gas lean will not burn (too little gas) more air available
  • Above Upper Explosive Limit (UEL) gas rich will not burn (too much gas) less air available 

Flammable gas /vapor - (LFL %) LEL % - (UFL %) UEL %   

  • Acetylene.                                            2.5    to   81
  • Butane.                                                1.9    to 8.5
  • Carbon monoxide.                               12.5   to 74.2
  • Ethane.                                                 3 to 12.5
  • Fuel oil.                                                0.6 – 1.0   to   5-5.6   
  • Gas oil.                                                 4.7 to 33
  • Hydrogen.                                             4 to 74.2
  • H2S.                                                      4.3 to 46
  • Kerosene.                                             0.6 to 5.6
  • Methane.                                              5 to 15
  • Propane.                                               2.2 to 9.6          

When Inhale:

  • Nitrogen (n2) 79%
  • Oxygen (o2) 20 %
  • Other gases – 1 %

When Exhale:

  • Carbon dioxide (co2) 4 %
  • Nitrogen (n2) 79 %
  • Oxygen (o2) 16 %
  • Other gases 1 % 

Lighter than Air:

  • Acetylene – 0.9%
  • Ammonia – 0.59%
  • Co –             0.966
  • Helium – 0.138%
  • H2 – 0.069%
  • CH4 -0.553%
  • N2 – 0.972%

Heavier than Air

  • Argon – 1.38%
  • Arsine – 2.69%
  • Co2 – 1.518%
  • So2 – 2.264%
  • Propane – 1.521%
  • Butane – 2.1%
  • Ozone – 1.660%
  • O2 – 1.104%
  • H2S – 1.19 %

Knowledge Point:

  • H2s Molecular weight: 34.08 gm
  • CO. LEL.12.5 %- UEL 74%
  • CO. 800 PPM in atmosphere death 1 – 4 minutes
  • This protects hemoglobin from releasing oxygen in tissues, effectively minimizing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, leading to hypoxia.
  • SO2 It is a respiratory irritant and causes coughing, 
  • SO2 Heavier than H2S and air
  • SO2 TLV-TWA  2 PPM & 5 PPM
  • SO2 Sulfurous acid can damage around the eyes, corneas, lungs and respiratory tract
  • Toxic of Ammonia: It is extremely irritating of the eyes, nose, throat and lungs and all moisture of the body
  • Ammonia (NH3) Leakage of gases NH3 water is showered
  • Leakage of liquid NH3 foam is used for blanketing
  • Methane-CH4, Hydrogen-H2, Natural gas-NG
  • N2. TLV/TWA  81%
  • Nicotine gas used in cigarette
  • Flammable: below 100 F’ temperature (ignition 37,77 c’)
  • Combustible: above 100 F’ temperature (ignition 37,77 c’)

What is Co?

  • Carbon monoxide (Co), a colorless, odorless, highly poisonous and combustible gas formed by the combustion reactors. 
  • Slight exposure to headache and dizziness, while nausea & vomiting can follow the inhalation of `higher concentrations, unconsciousness and death can result from exposure to long amounts without any warning symptoms
  • TLV-TWA 35 PPM STEL 50 PPM
  • LEL.12.5 %- UEL 74%
  • 800 PPM in atmosphere death 1 – 4 minutes

What is the effect of carbon monoxide in human body?

Carbon monoxide (CO) mainly causes adverse effects in humans by combining with hemoglobin to form carboxy hemoglobin (HbCO) in the blood. This protects hemoglobin from releasing oxygen in tissues, effectively minimizing the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood, leading to hypoxia.

Question. What are the engineering controls for carbon monoxide? 

Answer. Engineering Controls: Use local exhaust ventilation, if general ventilation is not adequate to control amount in the air. Exhaust directly to the external side, taking any mandatory precautions for environmental protection & prevention. Install & Use non-sparking ventilation systems, approved explosion-proof equipment and intrinsically safe & secure electrical systems in areas where this product is used and stored

What is So2 (sulfur dioxide)?

  • SO2 is one of the products formed when H2S is burned in the atmosphere and also formed when pyrophoric iron Sulphide oxidizes. It is also often present in combination with H2S.
  • Sulphur dioxide is a colorless, non-flammable gas with a strong suffocating odor. It is a respiratory irritant and causes coughing, an increase in sputum production and Broncho-constriction (spasm of airways) at low concentrations.
  • Highly toxic if inhaled
  • Colorless & strong suffocating odor (typical smell of burning match tip)
  • Heavier than H2S and air
  • Dissolve in water & forms mild sulfurous acid
  • Highly corrosive, acidic when wet
  • TLV-TWA  2 PPM & 5 PPM STEL The 15-minute Short term
  • Flammable range 500’f (c)
  • I.D.L.H. SO2 = 20 PPM
  • Ammonia-NH3
  • Methane-CH4
  • Hydrogen-H2
  • Natural gas-NG

Physical Effect:

Sulfurous acid can damage around the eyes, corneas, lungs and respiratory tract

Ammonia (NH3):

  • Toxic of Ammonia: It is extremely irritating of the eyes, nose, throat and lungs and all moisture of the body
  • Not a toxic gas however it is still dangerous in case of NH3 leakage then 2 causes arises

  1. Leakage of gases NH3 water is showered
  2. Leakage of liquid NH3 foam is used for blanketing

Knowledge Point?

  • Fiber glass reinforced plastic (FRP) withstand 328100 V/per meter (100.000 volts per foot) of length for five meters
  • Noxious gas is any gas in the air which is harmful to life when in-held
  • Oxygen no explosion of a methane air mixture. Can occur at 12%
  • Gravity of oxygen 1.105%
  • Gravity of hydrogen (H2) 0.0695 %
  • Explosive 4.0 % to 74.2% as 5% oxygen present
  • Detected by chemical analysis
  • Violent explosion 7 to 8%
  • One cubic foot of hydrogen at 60’ f and 30 inches of mercury pressure 5310000 (0.0053) of one pound
  • SCNR: Selective non-catalytic reduction
Download File

What is Gas Testing? 

Saturday, October 17, 2020

October 17, 2020

Toolbox Talks-Chain Saw Safety

Toolbox Talks-Overview 

If we use chain saws at our construction site, we are required to instruct employees on their safe use.  While there are no particular OSHA/OSHAD construction regulations, there is information from the general industry logging regulations that can and should be used for training as “best practices” for safe chain saw use.

Scope of Discussion

Chain Saw Requirements.  

  • Each chain saw must be equipped with a chain brake and a protective device to reduce kickback.  No kickback device can be removed or otherwise bypassed.  
  • Each chain saw must be equipped with a Continuous Pressure Throttle Control (CPTC) which will stop the chain when pressure is released.  
  • The saw must be operated and adjusted as per the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • When fueling chain saw, stay at least 10 feet from any open flame or another source of ignition.
  • Start chain saw at least 10 feet from the fueling area.

Pre-Operational Inspection. 

Inspect your chain saw before initial use during each work shift.  Minimally, a good inspection will include: 

  • Handles and guards.  Ensure they are sound, tight-fitting, appropriately shaped, free of sharp edges, and in place.
  • Controls.  Assure proper function.
  • Chains.  Assure proper adjustment.
  • Mufflers.  Assure they are operational and in place.

Operational Checks.  

We must use our chain saw only for the purpose for which it was designed. Dull chain cutting edges should be sharpened as per manufacturer’s specifications. Start a chain saw on the ground or other firmly supported area and with the chain brake engaged. Drop starting a chain saw is strictly prohibited. 

  • Be certain of footing before starting to cut, and use the saw in a position or at a distance that ensures appropriate balance and secure footing; clear away brush or other potential hurdles which might interfere with cutting work.
  • Never utilize the chain saw to cut overhead. 
  • Handle the chain saw to avoid operator contact with the cutting chain or hot muffler.

Always Remember that Chain Saws Are Dangerous.  

A little general sense and sticking to the safety rules and measures will go a long way to protect us from injury.

Questions

  • What is the basic chain saw safety requirements?
  • What personal protective equipment (PPE) is needed?
  • What safety inspection and observations should have conducted before using a chain saw?
  • What are some safety rules an operator using a chain saw should adopt?

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October 17, 2020

Method Statement Programming of Fire Alarm System

INTERFACING MODULE OF AHU UNIT AND NEED TO CHECK AND TROUBLESHOOT EXACT FAULT OF ANNOUNCIATOR

1. Purpose

This Method Statement document explains the method for Reprogramming of fire alarm system (FAS) for interfacing module of AHU Unit and needs to check the exact fault of Annunciator-2 at (Project/Facility Name) and Annunciator.

2. Scope

The scope of works detailed within this MS document applies to method for Reprogramming for a fire alarm system (FAS) for Interfacing module of AHU and require to examine the exact defects of Annunciator-2 whereby upon satisfactory accomplishment, inspection of works, the below mentioned Project requirement and effective & efficient system is handed Over to the Client.

3. Reference

  • NFPA 101Life Safety Code 
  • NFPA 72 Fire alarm system
  • NFPA 70 (2014 Edition)- Electrical

4. Procedure

Preventive maintenance:

  1. Authorized PTW SHALL be Issued by the client before the start of works
  2. Personnel conducting works SHALL wear  appropriate PPE
  3. Safety warning signs SHALL be provided and the area cleared of non-essential personnel
  4. The programmer will connect the software with the fire alarm panel in MODE-1.
  5. The Programmer already added the existing interfacing module as per the fire alarm panel Node and they will provide cause and effect (During fire alarm activation AHU module will be activated after 180 seconds time latency) for the Existing Module (EM).
  6. The programmer will do the changing of caution and effect as per the site standard to activate the Existing module.
  7. After completing programming and updating the fire system. We require to do the Fire Alarm Testing (FAT) to check the cause and effect of the Exiting module.
  8. The programmer will connect the software with fire alarm master panel in (specified Room) and he will check and troubleshoot exact fault of annunciator -2 Trouble.

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Tuesday, October 13, 2020

October 13, 2020

Toolbox Talks on Drug Policy at Worksite

 1. Drug Consequences  

The misuse of alcohol and drugs could be very negative and dangerous impacts that can lead to less productivity, taking time off work, and an increase in incidents/accidents at work. 

2. Alcohol

Employees under the influence of alcohol are strictly prohibited in (YOUR COMPANY NAME) and are treated as “ZERO” tolerance policy. All type of prescribed medications that have an element of an alcoholic is not supposed to be allowed when any worker is under medical treatment. They are not allowed to resume their duty until the complete recovery from the illness. Tests have shown that alcohol can still affect the human body up to 18 hours after once have stopped drinking. Alcohol is an intoxicant, which overcomes the human brain functions & capabilities and slows down reactions and the perception of danger. The worker who is under the alcohol influence is at much greater risk if he works at height, with machinery/vehicles or is involved in moving large items.  He doesn’t have to be drunk to have sustained some impairment. If he knows of a co-worker who drinks, then he is not helping him or himself. 

He is unable to:

  • Cover for the drinker’s poor productivity.
  • Cover his/her mistakes.
  • Make excuses on his/her behalf.

3. What You Should Do?

Take control of the situation and do the following immediately: 

  1. 1Don’t allow the situation to continue. Stop covering for the drinker.
  2. Talk to your supervisor. 
  3. 3Watch out for your co-worker as he/she may need help. 

4. Illegal Drugs

  1. You or your co-workers are far more likely to have an accident when under the influence of illegal drugs.
  2. If you know that your colleague/co-worker is taking drugs, tell your supervisor or line manager.
  3. All drugs can affect your ability to work safely. 
  4. Drugs and work don’t mix. 
  5. Prescribed/Non-Prescribed Drugs:

The most frequent side effect of prescribed/non prescribed drugs which affect work activities is drowsiness, which reduces the drinker’s level of alertness and increases reaction time. Taking medication and then coming to work and using machinery/vehicles or tools, can be the most hazardous and dangerous. If anyone of you does come to work and you require to take medication, always remember the following key points:

  1. Let your supervisor know.
  2. Follow the recommended dosages and do not mix medications.
  3. Read the label.
  4. Do not try new remedies during work hours.
  5. In Case of Drug Usage-What Action Required?

If you are as Project line manager, supervisor or employee and observes any of your labourer/worker or other people within your working area behaving as if they are affected by drugs and/or alcohol then prompt action will be taken to preserve the safety of that person, others and Company property. Disciplinary action and possible dismissal will take place.

We (YOUR COMPANY NAME) aim to support our affected employees rather than punish them, although our policy is that possession of or dealing in drugs at work will be reported immediately to the police.  

5. Main Points:

  • Be aware of the (YOUR COMPANY NAME)’s strategy on alcohol, drugs and substance misuse.
  • Understand what action will be taken by the (YOUR COMPANY NAME), if you are found to be under the influence of alcohol or drugs whilst at work or if you are found selling or providing drugs on the premises.
  • Always be aware of the right person to report to if you suspect a co-worker is under the influence of alcohol or drugs when at work.

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Toolbox Talks on Drug Policy at Worksite

Sunday, October 11, 2020

October 11, 2020

Caught-In Between Hazards Toolbox Talks

Outline

Past in October of 1994, OSHA implemented its Focused Inspections measures for construction worksites.  A focused inspection intensifies on the four main causes of death at construction worksites: 

  1. Falls from elevation. 
  2. Struck-by, hit-by.
  3. Caught in/between and electrical hazards.  

18% percent of all construction related deaths are caused by caught in/between accidents.

Scope of Discussion

Thousands of such incident/accident stories can be told about caught in/between hazards.  What exactly is a “caught in/between” hazard?  Here’s one example.

A worker was steam cleaning a scraper. The bowl apron of the worker was left in the raised position. The hydraulic apron had not been blocked/checked to halt it from accidentally falling. The apron fell surprisingly and the worker was caught between the apron and the cutting edge of the scraper bowl. The apron weighed generally 2,500 pounds.  You already know how the story ends.

When there is a trenching and shoring, a proper stairway, ladder, ramp or other safe ways of getting out of a trench must be properly located in excavations that are four feet or deeper.  And workers must not have to travel more than 25 feet in any direction to reach installed ladder.

Moreover, each worker in an excavation must be secured from cave-ins by a proper protective system designed as per OSHA rules and regulations. Shield protecting system must not be subjected to loads exceeding those which the system was established to withstand.

Material handling, storage, use, and disposal.  

Materials and or substances or other objects kept in tiers must be stacked, racked, blocked appropriately, or somehow safeguard to prevent sliding, falling, or collapse unwanted incidents.

Hand and power tools.  

When power operated tools, equipment or machinery is designed to accommodate guards they must be equipped with those guards when in use. All belts, gears, shafts, pulleys, sprockets, spindles, drums, fly wheels, chains, or other reciprocating, rotating, or moving parts of equipment or machinery. Tools must be guarded if the parts are exposed to contact by workers or otherwise create a fatal or even minor hazard.

Cranes, derricks, hoists, elevators, and conveyors.  

Reachable areas within the swing radius of the rear of the crane’s rotating superstructure must be barricaded to safeguard or prevent a worker from being struck or crushed by the crane or machinery.

Mechanized equipment.  

End-Loader Buckets (ELB), Dump Bodies (DB), bulldozers and scraper blades, and other similar equipment/tools must be either fully lowered or blocked when being repaired, serviced or when not in use.

Questions

  • Why is the word “focus” utilized in association with being aware of caught in/between hazards?
  • Which of the above mentioned potential risk exposure is present on your current work site?
  • Is workforce on your work-site inducted of any changes that may include any of the above severe possible hazards? 
  • Who do you report a actual or potential hazard to on your worksite?

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October 11, 2020

Awareness Blood Borne Pathogens-Toolbox Talks

Outline

OSHA created a rule several years ago to protect workers from exposure to the hepatitis B virus (HBV), the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and other “bloodborne pathogens.”  Any exposure to bloodborne pathogens can lead to disease or death. 

Scope of Discussion 

If you can reasonably anticipate having skin, eye, or nasal membrane contact with blood, saliva, urine, vomit or any fluid that visibly contains blood, or other body fluid, you are “Occupationally Exposed (OE).”  First responders in emergencies situations are prominent candidates who adjust into this category.  OSHA’s rule limits their exposure.  Your employer will take the proper precautions to limit your exposure.  

Safety and Health Requirements

This should include the following: 

A determination of who is occupationally exposed in your company will allow for the proper steps to be taken to protect these workers.  Handwashing facilities and barrels for broken glass are just a couple of ways to limit exposures.  Good work practices and personal protective equipment are other means of protection.  Posting of signs and labelling containers with the appropriate biohazard sign is also effective. In addition to the above, you should take further steps to prevent infection whenever you may encounter blood or other body fluids.  

Other Good Work Practices Worth Following Are:

  • Always wash hands immediately after removing gloves or other protective equipment and after any hand contact with blood or potentially infectious fluids.
  • Do not bend, break, or re-cap any used blades or sharp item.  Never pick up broken glass or metal with your fingers.  Use a broom or tongs.
  • Dispose of used blades and needles in puncture resistance containers with leak-proof sides and bottom.  Containers must be properly labelled.
  • Do not eat or drink, apply makeup or handle contact lenses in potential exposure areas.
  • Do not store food or beverages in refrigerators or cabinets, or on shelves or countertops in these areas.
  • To make treatment of all blood and body fluids as if they were infectious. 

Questions

  1. What are good work practices for reducing the risk of contact with bloodborne pathogens?
  2. Are you at risk on your job site?
  3. Name some good rules to remember to prevent infection.

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Awareness Blood Borne Pathogens-Toolbox Talks

Saturday, October 10, 2020

October 10, 2020

Method Statement For Installation of GI Conduits, Back Boxes & Accessories

 1. Purpose

The purpose of this Method Statement is to describe the details used and controls to be carried out for the installation of G I Conduits, Back Boxes and Accessories to ensure that it complies to Project requirements, specifications and standards.

2. Scope

This Method Statement is applicable to all G I conduits, back Boxes and accessories at (PROJECT NAME) electrical works in slab, screed, wall and ceiling serving Lighting, Small Power, Fire Alarm, Low Current, Intercom and Lightning Protection.

3. Definition

Abbreviation:

  1. GI - Galvanized Iron
  2. QAQC - Quality Assurance Quality Control
  3. RFIA - Request for Inspection – Test
  4. ITP - Inspection and Test Plan
  5. TBT - Tool Box Talk
  6. MSDS - Material Safety Data Sheet

A. Approved

Approved means approved in writing by the applicable Engineers Assistant acting within the scope of their delegate authority.

B. Shop Drawings

Means drawings produced where the contract designs drawings require expressing in more basic form to facilitate construction.

C. Final Inspection

Means the inspection of the records of works at completion or at completion of pre-determined elements to ensure that all previous inspections and tests have been satisfactorily carried out and properly recorded.

D. Materials

Means all items covering the materials or equipments delivered to site that must be incorporated in the project.

E. Method Statements

Method Statements (MOS) means a technical document to be read in conjunction with the drawings, specification, standards and codes of practice, technical data sheets, schedules, work instructions and any other technical document related to a particular work.

4. Reference Documents – Specifications, Drawings. Etc.

  • Project Quality Plan
  • Project Specification
  • Approved Shop Drawings
  • Manufacturer Instruction

5. Responsibilities

  • The Project Manager shall be responsible for the entire construction activities.
  • The Construction Manager (CM) Site Engineers, Supervisors and Foremen shall implement this Method Statement.
  • The Material controller shall be accountable for receiving materials on site warehouse.
  • Site Engineer / Supervisor shall check the materials as per manufacture’s recommendation prior to installation and shall be responsible for the installation as per approved shop drawings.
  • Safety Officer shall ensure that appropriate / necessary measures are in place at work location to avoid any unexpected events.
  • QAQC Inspector shall be accountable for conducting inspections for the materials delivered on site. He shall document such inspections.
  • QAQC Engineer / Inspector shall monitor the installation activities progressively and shall record all deviation from specification in a form of snags or non-conformance notification.

6. Method of Execution or Application.

  • Ensure that materials G I Conduits, Back Boxes and Accessories-are store as per manufacturer’s recommendation, procedures and project specifications.
  • Prior to material use, ensure that Materials Inspection Request (MIR) is raised and approved.
  • Ensure that the material is free from damages.
  • Install the conduits as per approved Shop Drawings, Coordination Drawings and Project Specifications. Comply with specifications on support installation to prevent from sagging. Any changes in the routing shall be RED LINED in approved Shop Drawings and changes shall be reflected in AS-BUILT DRAWINGS.
  • Approved fittings shall be used for joining G I Conduits. 
  • Any bench marks shall be removed from GI Conduits and painted immediately after erections.
  • Cover all ends of conduits to prevent any debris going inside thus blocking the conduit.
  • Ensure that workmanship is tidy and complying to good construction practices.

7. Inspection and Testing

  • After completion of the work, the Site Engineer who perform an activity are required to raise an RFIA (Request for Inspection and Approval) with complete information regarding the scope of inspection, including necessary drawings highlighted to show the scope of inspection. He shall systematically check and inspect their work. The inspection shall be performed according to typical checklist and approved Inspection and Test Plans (ITP) which shall also be attached to the RFIA. 
  • After the Site Engineer completed their inspection, RFIA shall be submitted to QAQC Department who shall process the documents to have completed work inspected by Supervision Consultant for their approval

8. Tools and Equipments

        Equipment

  • Hydraulic Pipe Bender
  • Electric Pipe Threader

        Tools

  • Pipe Cutter
  • Pipe Reamer
  • Hickey Bender / Bending spring
  • Electric drill with wits
  • Jigsaw
  • Hacksaw
  • Open and box type spanners
  • Chalk line / marking pen
  • Measuring Tape
  • Ball Hammer and cold chisel
  • Screw Driver set
  • Level Bar

9. Manpower

       Staff:

  • Construction Manager
  • Site Engineer
  • Supervisor
  • QC Engineer / Inspector
  • Quantity Surveyor
  • Safety Officer

      Labor

  • Foreman
  • Trade workers
  • Helpers / Labours
  • Drivers

10. Health, Safety and Environment

Safety of all workers and equipment is the highest priority of organization during the execution of the Works.

Personnel Protective Equipment

  • Safety Helmet
  • Safety Glasses (during drilling and use of grinders)
  • Face shield (during grinding)
  • Safety Footwear (steel toes)
  • Safety Gloves (for material handling)
  • Coverall (as protective clothing)
  • Full Body Harness
  • Respiratory Mask (if require)

Tool Box Talk (TBT)

  • HSE Tool Box Talk shall be given by the site supervisor every week and/or as deemed necessary.
  • HSE tool Box Talk shall brief the task / subject and shall be given in languages understandable by multinational workforce.
  • HSE Tool Box Talk attendance shall be recorded on a sheet and signed by attendees.

Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)

All materials shall be identified and all MSDS should be read and understood before use.

Housekeeping

Housekeeping shall be maintained by all personnel working at site. Housekeeping for fabrication and installation shall be as per project safety plan and organization Safety Manual.

Signage

All Mandatory safety warning and caution signs shall be displayed at work locations.

11. QC Approval and Other Documentary Requirements

  • Material Technical Submittal Approval
  • Shop Drawing Approval
  • Material Inspection Report (MIR) approval
  • Installation Request for Inspection – Test (RFIA)


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Thursday, October 8, 2020

October 08, 2020

SWOT Form Format

A SWOT analysis is an excellent and powerful tool to support you establish your business plan, whether you’re going to startup or instructing an existing company.

SWOT Stands For: 

S-Strengths 

W-eaknesses

O-pportunities

T-hreats.

The 2-basic (Terms Strengths and weaknesses) are internal to your organisation and regarding the things that you have some sort of control over and can be altered. Leading examples include your team members, your patents and intellectual property, and your location.

While the term (Opportunities and Threats) are external matter and having things that are external to your organisation, and can take advantage of opportunities and protection against threats, and such threats can’t be changed. The Competitors, prices of raw materials or substances, and customer shopping trends are the examples for Opportunities and Threats.

A SWOT (Strengths and weaknesses & Opportunities and Threats) analysis formulate your main and primary strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats into an organized list and is generally given in a simple two-by-two grid. You can download the following free SWOT template and use as per your requirements.

Following is the table for some important Acronyms and Abbreviations for Chemical Management Safety System. you can download in word format by clicking the download file link for free here Download File or at the end of this table.

For more health and safety-related free documents such as the method of statements, risk assessments, JSA’s. JHA’s, facility management, civil, electrical reports and forms, food safety documents, toolbox talks, HSE training, orientations in PowerPoint, and along with all these free downloads, you can also request for any document you required for your project. When you request for any health and safety and environmental document via our website at  https://www.hsedocuments.com/, we try to search for that document in our HSE Document library, if not found in the library, we request our professionals to prepare the requested document and upload as soon as possible on our website. Just subscribe our website to get every document’s uploading notification.

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SWOT Analysis Form Format

Monday, October 5, 2020

October 05, 2020

Toolbox Talks for Computer Ergonomics

Over the past few years, computer-based technology has become crucial in most offices. Along with the proliferation of technology, concern about healthy, safe, and comfortable use of computers has emerged

Symptoms:

Muscular Discomfort– pain, aching, loss of coordination, numbness, and stiffness

Eye Strain- headaches, dizziness, and nausea

Preventative Company Guidelines:

Monitor Configurations:

  1. Depth – The monitor should be arm’s length away from you while seated.
  2. Height - The toolbar at the top of the screen should fall just below eye level, this allows the user to view the screen without causing neck strain from repetitive moving.

Keyboard and Mouse Configuration:

  • Parallel to the floor and make a 90˚ to 110˚ along with the upper arm. This should allow you to freely type without resting your wrists on any hard or soft surfaces. Most desks need an adjustable keyboard tray to complete this.
  • Mouse- The mouse should be placed on the same plane as the keyboard (keyboard trays should have a mouse chamber to hold the mouse).  You should determine which mouse causes the least strain on your wrist (conventional, trackball, etc.).

Chair Configuration:

  • Depth (Seat Pan) - The seat pan should leave approximately a 2-3 finger space between the end of the seat and the back of your legs.
  • Height- your chair should be at a height that permit you to place your feet flat on the floor with your thighs horizontal to your lower legs.
  • Lumbar Support- The lumbar support on the sitting chair should curve and rest against the small of your back.
  • Backrest Tilt- the Backrest should be at a 90˚ to 110˚ angle when typing.

Preventative Exercise:

  • Get up and walk around to stretch your legs for a few minutes on regular basis.
  • Stretch your wrist, arms, and back periodically while at your workstation

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Thursday, October 1, 2020

October 01, 2020

Asphalt Hazards-Toolbox Talks

 Outline

Thousands of construction workers are exposed to the hazards from asphalt daily.  Asphalt is a petroleum product utilized widely in road paving, roofing, siding, and concrete work.  When hot asphalt is adjusted in a molten state, it generates toxic fumes.

Description of Hazard

The primary danger from hot mix asphalt is thermal burns.  Asphalt fumes may also cause eye, skin, and respiratory tract irritation.  Workers who are exposed to asphalt fumes have reported headaches, rashes, cough, breathing problems, asthma, bronchitis, and skin irritation. 

Safety and Health Requirements

This should include the following: 

First aid for eyes, skin, inhalation, and fumes.

A. EYES 

If any hot material is splashed into a worker’s eyes, flush eyes immediately with fresh water and then take the worker to a doctor.

B. SKIN

If any hot material gets on your skin, a cool affected area in cold water as soon as possible to stop further damage.  If ice is handy, pack ice on the asphalt adhering to the skin.  Do not try to remove the solidified bitumen material from the skin in any way.  Get to a doctor as soon as possible. 

C. INHALATION

Move the employee to fresh air right away.  Call a doctor.

D. FUMES

To protect against the potential hazards of asphalt fumes, your company can treat it as if it were on the list of gases, vapours, fumes, dust, and mists included in OSHA 29 CFR 1926.55.  

OSHA does not have a specific standard for asphalt fumes, so follow the listing of safe work practices below.  

  • Implement Administrative/engineering controls whenever feasible. New paving equipment manufactured after July 1, 1997, will incorporate ventilation systems to reduce asphalt fumes by 80% under an agreement with equipment manufacturers and OSHA. 
  • When such controls are not feasible to achieve the desired results, personal protective equipment (PPE) or other protective measures can be used to keep employee exposure to air contaminants within the limits suggested.
  • Always ensure that you are equipped with the proper PPE such as respirators, heavy-duty gloves, splash goggles or effective safety glasses, long pants and sleeves, and boots.

Questions

  1. Have you been shown a copy of your company’s Emergency Action Plan about asphalt hazards?
  2. Do all asphalt workers on your job site wear proper personal protective clothing?  What is the proper PPE?
  3. What should you do if hot asphalt fumes become intolerable on your job site?
  4. How important is it to obtain professional medical care in case of any injury due to asphalt hazards?  Why?


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