Thursday, May 21, 2020

Control of Cadmium and Hexavalent Guidelines

Control of Cadmium and Hexavalent

Hexavalent chromium is usually originated by an industrial process. Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) causes cancer. Furthermore, it attacks the human respiratory system, kidneys, liver, skin and eyes. Chromium metal is mixed with steel to enhance the hardenability and resistance for the corrosion. A big and leading source of worker exposure to Hexavalent chromium appears during hot work activities for example welding on steel and other compounds steels consisting of chromium metal. The compounds may be utilized as the stain in dyes, paints, inks, and plastics. Hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) also may be used as an anti-corrosive agent joined to paints and other surface coatings. The Cr(VI) compound chronic acid is utilized to electroplate chromium onto metal parts to provide a protective coating.

Who Can Be Exposed to Hexavalent Chromium?

Hexavalent chromium is used in much industrial organisation which are related to metal and steel manufacturing. Annually, a huge quantity of the workers is exposed to Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI) workers in various occupations. Workplace exposures to the Hexavalent chromium occur basically in the below-mentioned areas: 
  1. Welding and hot work on steel and other metals that contain chromium Hexavalent
  2. Utilization of spray paints and coatings etc.
  3. The most severe and threatening where exposure occurs is conducting operating chrome plating baths

Hexavalent Chromium Exposures Areas

Most of the industrial processes that involve chromium can result in worker exposure to toxic hexavalent chromium. The Chemical Exposure Health Database by OSHA includes industrial hygiene sample results from OSHA inspections. This type of database does not include workplace inspection sample results from many of the 26 States that operated OSHA-approved Plans or OSHA consultation visits. Such type of data provides an overall idea of industry sectors and business subcategories where the levels of airborne Cr(VI) Hexavalent Chromium have been found.

The Evaluation of Hexavalent Chromium Exposure

The Occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) can occur from inhalation of heavy or even minor quantity, dust, mists, or fumes containing hexavalent chromium, or from eye or skin contact. The following references from OSHA provide clear information on exposure limits and analytical methods and techniques used to evaluate hexavalent chromium exposure. OSHA Cr(VI) standards for general industry (1910.1026), shipyards (1915.1026), and construction (1926.1126) require employers to evaluate the potential employee exposed to chromium (VI).

Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI) Controlling Exposure

OSHA Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI) standards demand the employers utilize attainable engineering and work practice controls to minimize employee’s exposures at or below the acceptable exposure limit (PEL). Wherever achievable engineering and controls are not appropriate to minimize employee exposure to or below the Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL), the employer must utilize such controls measures to minimize the employee’s exposure to the lowest levels getable, then added with Respiratory Protection System (RPS) and, in generic industry, establish a controlled area to warn employees and limit access. Where a hazard is present from skin or eye contact with Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI) the employer must provide proper personal protective equipment (PPE). The Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI) standards address other protective measures related to Hexavalent Chromium Cr(VI) exposure, including hygiene areas and practices, proper housekeeping and cleaning methods and techniques, medical surveillance, and employee’s information and proper training

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